The production of specialty milk fat ingredients

Although butter is considered to be a good, wholesome and natural food, there are health concerns regarding the amount of fat and cholesterol in butter. The production and use of milk fat as a functional food ingredient is overviewed. The manufacture of specialty milk fat ingredients involves fractionation, blending of milk-fat fractions, the addition of other functional ingredients, texturization and packaging. The target specifications and characteristics of the finished product depend on the final application. Composition and component selection are described. Factors to be considered in the selection of milk-fat ingredients are discussed. The use of milk-fat ingredients in foods is summarized.
Kaylegian K.E.   Journal of Dairy Science  1999 (July), 82 (7), 1433-1439 (7 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 505810)

Making low-fat cheese melt better

Low-fat and fat-free Mozzarella cheeses do not melt or fuse together as well as their full-fat counterparts. In this article, a technique developed for improving the melting and browning quality of the low-fat and full-fat cheeses is described. The method involves spraying the surface of the cheese with a hydrophobic coating (0.5 g of canola oil/100 g of cheese). It is suggested that this might be a useful application in the production of pizzas, since 75% of US mozzarella cheese is used for this purpose. The implications of this method for other cheese products are mentioned.
Anon.   Emerging Food R and D Report  1999 (September), 10 (6), 2-3 (0 ref.)  En   (saan: 506543)

Evaluation of Cheddar cheese as a food carrier for delivery of a probiotic strain to the gastrointestinal tract

Dairy products such as yoghurts, ice cream and cheeses are of interest as carriers for probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. The culture needs to remain viable at high concentrations during the shelf-life or storage period. Cheddar cheese and yoghurt were evaluated as systems for the delivery of a probiotic strain of Enterococcus faecium to the gastrointestinal tract. Studies were carried out using an in vitro model system with extracted gastric juice and an in vivo system with pig-feeding trials. This strain could survive in high numbers in Cheddar cheese during ripening at 8 C for 15 months and in yoghurt during storage at 4 C for 21 days. Cheddar cheese could be as effective a carrier as yoghurt for this strain.
Gardiner G., Stanton C., Lynch P.B., Collins J.K., Fitzgerald G., Ross R.P.   Journal of Dairy Science  1999 (July), 82 (7), 1379-1387 (46 ref.) En:en   (saan: 505803)

Carbonated yogurt-sensory properties and consumer acceptance

Although yoghurt is a semi-solid product, it can be readily carbonated to a product with a refreshing taste. Carbonation could help nutrition and novelty in the dairy foods market. The effects of carbonation on the perception of sweetened low-fat plain yoghurt and low-fat Swiss-style strawberry and lemon yoghurts were investigated. The carbonated yoghurts were stored at 4 C and evaluated by a sensory panel after 7, 21 and 45 days' storage. Flavour, texture and overall acceptability were determined. There were no significant differences between carbonated and non-carbonated yoghurts in terms of flavour and texture after storage.
Karagul-Yuceer Y., Coggins P.C., Wilson J.C., White C.H.   Journal of Dairy Science  1999 (July), 82 (7), 1394-1398 (18 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 505805)

Effect of milk fat on the sensory properties of chocolate ice cream

Flavour quality is important to consumers when selecting the level of fat in frozen desserts and ice cream. The effects of milk fat on the sensory properties of non-fat ().5%), low-fat (4%), reduced-fat (6%) and full-fat (9%) chocolate ice cream were investigated. The ice creams were stored at -30 or heat-shocked at -12 C. Hardness, viscosity, melting rate, texture, flavour, smoothness and overall acceptance were determined over 4 weeks' storage. Milk fat contributes to the stability of texture and flavour during storage. The non-fat and low-fat ice creams were most adversely affected by heat-shock treatment.
Prindiville E.A., Marshall R.T., Heymann H.   Journal of Dairy Science 1999 (July), 82 (7), 1425-1432 (18 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 505809)

Sensory attributes and storage life of reduced fat ice cream as related to inulin content

Inulin is resistant to digestion by small intestine enzymes but can be selectively utilized by specific colonic bacteria such as bifidobacteria and, to a lesser extent, lactobacilli. The addition of inulin to dairy products could help in the survival and stability of added bifidobacteria. The effects of substitution of inulin for 42DE (dextrose equivalent) corn syrup on the sensory characteristics of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. The iciness, chewiness, sweetness and vanilla flavour intensity of the ice creams were evaluated over 6 weeks' storage. Inulin altered the texture of the reduced-fat ice cream, creating a more chewy texture compared with a corn-syrup-based ice cream. Inulin may also have cryoprotectant effects.
Schaller-Povolny L.A., Smith D.E.   Journal of Food Science  1999 (May-June), 64 (3), 555-559 (31 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 505776)

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