Consumer acceptance, consumption and sensory attributes of spreads made from designer fats

Cholesterol-reduced table spreads made with animal-based designer fats might offer an acceptable alternative to butter and spreads made from hydrogenated vegetable oils. In this study, liking and consumption measurements of the acceptability of butter, margarine, and two spreads made using designer fats were evaluated, and the sensory attributes of the products were determined. Products tested were butter and margarines, a dairy spread made with cholesterol-reduced milk fat, and a spread made with cholesterol-reduced lard mixed with vegetable oils. Liking and consumption were measured at normal mealtimes in the natural eating environment of the subjects. Butter was found to be the most liked and margarine the least liked spread. Butter eaters accounted for the liking differences among samples and ate more spreads, while margarine eaters liked all products equally. Liking ratings were seen to be generally unrelated to intake for all subjects. Descriptive analysis showed the flavour of the two spreads made from designer fats to be more similar to margarine than to butter. The two designer fat spreads were as well accepted by subjects as their regularly used margarine.
Michicich M., Vickers Z., Martini M.C., Labat J.B.   Food Quality and Preference  1999 (March), 10 (2), 147-154 (19 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 490639)

Butter - butter fat: more than only a raw material

This article describes butter and butterfat. Butter should contain at least 82% fat, no more than 16% water, and up to 2% fat-free dry mass. Pure butterfat contains 99.8% fat, and fractioned butterfat has the same fat content as pure butterfat. Butterfat with 96% fat is also available. Butter is used largely for its flavour. However, the quality of butter is variable in terms of consistency and content. The baking industry often prefers margarine owing to its processing properties, and the inconsistency of butter. Butter producers offer a range of products, aimed at different baking applications, from different types of butterfat, pure butterfat to fractioned butterfat.
Schroder K.   Getreide Mehl und Brot  1999 (January-February), 53 (1), 48-50 (3 ref.)  De   (saan: 490576))

Volatile reduced sulphur compounds in butter by solid phase microextraction

Volatile sulfur compounds influence the flavour of a range of foods and beverages; however, there is little information about the occurrence and chemistry of volatile sulfur compounds in butter. Volatile reduced-sulfur compounds in the headspace of butter were analysed by polyacrylate-fibre, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS. The use of these SPME fibres minimizes the possible modification of any reduced sulfur compounds present. The concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyldisulfide were determined and their seasonal variations were evaluated. Grass type and condition seemed to influence the concentrations of these compounds in the butter, with the highest concentrations being found in spring. The concentrations also decreased during storage of the butter at 4 C for 5 weeks.
Shooter D., Jayatissa N., Renner N.   Journal of Dairy Research  1999 (February), 66 (1), 115-123 (24 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 491903))

Manufacture and composition of low fat Cheddar cheese from milk enriched with different protein concentrate powders

Demand for reduced-fat Cheddar cheese is increasing. Reduced-fat cheese is prepared by altering the casein to fat ratio in the raw milk. The ratio is adjusted by skimming milk or by adding protein concentrates. Effects of addition of diafiltered microfiltered protein concentrates (DMF powders), calcium caseinate (CaCN powders) or ultrafiltered protein concentrates (UF powders) to milk on the manufacturing, composition and yield of low-fat Cheddar cheese were studied. To obtain the same casein levels, compared with DMF powder, more UF powder and less CaCN powder was required. DMF powder increased production time slightly. Yields of low fat cheese were highest when DMF powder was used. Further study is required to determine how the powders affect cheese-ripening processes.
St-Gelais D., Roy D., Audet P.   Food Research International  1998 31 (2), 137-145 (30 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 492179))

Lactic acid bacteria and Japanese health foods

Fermented milk products are widely consumed in Japan as health foods.  Some yoghurts and fermented milks are labelled as 'foods for specified human health', and are believed to help regulate digestion and prevent mutagenesis, and to treat GI disorders such as diarrhoea in breast-fed babies.  The discussion includes the lactic acid bacteria used in different fermentation processes, and the different products obtained (from seven companies).  For example, Bifidobacterium BB 536 may be used in the production of powdered products, tablets and pastilles, granules, chocolates (sweets and blocks) and biscuits.
Langley-Danysz P.   RIA  1999 (January), (587), 30-33 (0 ref.)  Fr (saan: 490001)

Effect of gelatine on the texture of yoghurt and of acid-heat-induced milk gels

Yoghurt-like products have become popular in the western world.  Use of gelatin to produce yoghurt with different textures, ranging from a creamy to a firm, mouldable gel, was examined.  Gelatin was added, at a range of concentrations, to traditionally produced yoghurt, with and without added skimmed milk powder, and to acid-heat-induced milk gels.  Gelatin helped prevent syneresis in yoghurts and gels, and reinforced mechanical resistance of the gels, enabling production of gels with different textures.
Fiszman S.M., Salvador A.   Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung A  1999 (February), 208 (2), 100-105 (28 ref.)  En:en (saan: 491520))

Effects and results of ice-cream structuring. Part I: structure

The structure of ice cream determines sensory quality and storage stability. The important quality parameters are the size of the ice crystals and the spread of the air bubbles (gas phase). A fine spread of air ensures creamy mouthfeel. The structure is built up during freezing and hardening. The microstructure of ice cream consists of one continuous and several disperse phases. The continuous phase contains the soluble ingredients (sugar, salt, whey protein), and dispersed ice crystals, air bubbles, and fat cones. This article describes the structure of the gas phase and ice phase of ice cream.
Rohenkohl H., Kohlus R.   Zucker- und Susswaren Wirtschaft  1999 (February), 52 (1-2), 35-38 (5 ref.)  De:en:de   (saan: 491784))

Bioactive proteins and peptides for functional foods

This article on bioactive peptides and proteins tabulates these peptides and proteins, together with their effects. Their applications in food products are also described. Bioactive proteins include immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme. Bioactive peptides include casein phosphopeptides, glycomacropeptides, and ACE inhibitors. A large number of these are commercially available and could be used in the development of functional foods. Milk is an important source of bioactive proteins and peptides.
Buikstra F.P.M.   Voedingsmiddelentechnologie  1999 (February 25), 32 (5), 32-36 (17 ref.)  Nl   (saan: 491775))

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