A World Trade Organisation (WTO) disputes panel has ruled that Canada has failed to comply with an earlier ruling ordering it to reform its collective dairy marketing systems, so that its exporters do not enjoy subsidies on world markets. The latest panel has ruled that through its CEM (Commercial Export Milk) scheme and its Special Milk Class 5(d) system, Canada is "providing export subsidies" over and above the liberalisation commitments it has made in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture regarding exports of cheese and "other dairy products."