Butter: oilseed rape in feed improves spreadability
Rapeseed was added to the winter rations of lactating cows to determine the effects on butter spreadability. A significantly softer consistency and higher iodine number were found in butters made from the milk of these cows owing to the altered fatty acid profile.
Tschager E., Zangerl P., Knaus W., Zollitsch W., Steger A. Deutsche Milchwirtschaft 1999 (December 1), 50 (24), 1068-1069 (0 ref.) De:de:en (saan: 512801)
Equipment for monitoring cheese processing
Techniques for monitoring the cheese-making process are discussed in this article. Processors use the Formagraph machine, based on rheology, to determine coagulation on a daily basis. The Formagraph is being withdrawn from the market by its manufacturer, but the Optigraph machine, which includes a diode emitting an IR beam, is currently in development. Information is obtained by measuring changes in the intensity of the IR beam.
Guyonnet J.-P. Revue Laitiere Francaise 1999 (October), (595), 36-37 (0 ref.) Fr (saan: 511059)
New cheeses for the new millennium
Cheese is recognized as a healthy ingredient in a balanced diet. As consumers are moving towards convenience foods and snacks, the cheese industry is responding by developing a range of freeze-dried cheeses, which currently includes Mature Cheddar, Double Gloucester, Oak Smoked Cheddar and Stilton. Freeze drying involves removal of the water contained in a cheese. The cheese is grated or crumbled to increase the surface area, layered on trays, and frozen. Optimum conditions will vary with the properties of each cheese. The dried product is stable under ambient conditions for up to a year, and has a low density. Freeze-dried cheeses may be used in soups, sauces and baby foods. The cheeses have the flavour and texture of fresh cheese, but does not melt and disappear when used in baked products, making it attractive to producers of speciality breads, pizza bases and biscuits.
King L. Food Manufacture 1999 (September), 74 (9), 39-40 (0 ref.) En (saan: 510816)
Content of probiotic microorganisms in selected dairy products
The effectiveness of probiotic cultures contained in fermented milk products depends on the content of metabolically active bacteria at the time of consumption. Samples of such products containing strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei and the genus Bifidobacterium were subjected to bacterial counts at the beginning, middle and end of their minimum shelf-lives. There was only a slight fall in L. casei counts, whilst a greater fluctuation was found for L. acidophilus, particularly in products containing two different probiotic cultures. Storage times had a particularly negative effect on bifidobacteria.
Klein G., Stenzel W.-R., Reuter G. Lebensmittelchemie 1999 53 (6), 162-163 (0 ref.) De (saan: 510970)
Tharp and Young on ice cream
The authors answer questions on the development of a lactose-free frozen dessert, and the best drawing temperature for ice cream that is frozen in a continuous freezer. Lactose-free desserts may be made by use of non-dairy proteins and vegetable fats; use of milk protein concentrates and isolates, which have their lactose content reduced by ultrafiltration or similar processes; or addition of lactase. Generally, the best drawing temperature for ice cream is the lowest consistent with the composition of the product and the required handling properties.
Tharp B., Young S. Dairy Foods 1999 (September), 60 (0 ref.) En (saan: 512870)
Effects of fat replacers on the sensory properties, color, melting, and hardness of ice cream
Although a range of fat-free ice-cream products has been developed, their quality often does not meet consumer expectations for flavour, texture and appearance. To identify a suitable fat replacer for use in reduced-fat and fat-free ice cream, the sensory and quality attributes affected by the fat replacer must be quantified. The flavour, appearance and mouthfeel of fat-free ice cream prepared with individual fat replacers (maltodextrin, milk-protein concentrate or polydextrose) were therefore determined and compared with those of 10% fat ice cream. Colour, flavour, melting, hardness, sweetness and texture were evaluated. The addition of fat replacers decreased the amount of ice in the product. Maltodextrin was scored as the best overall fat replacer in fat-free ice cream.
Roland A.M., Phillips L.G., Boor K.J. Journal of Dairy Science 1999 (October), 82 (10), 2094-2100 (15 ref.) En:en (saan: 511852)
Aspects of whey protein usage in infant nutrition, a brief review
A significant proportion of whey proteins are used in infant nutrition via infant formulas. To date they have tended to be used in their demineralised or concentrated forms. Fractions have now become available that enable the protein quality of the formulas to be improved. Use of whey proteins in infant formulas is reviewed. Aspects considered include protein levels and types in cows’ milk and human milk, protein bioavailability, protein quality, alpha-lactalbumin enrichment of infant formulas, and use of other novel milk protein fractions in infant formulas.
Jost R., Maire J.-C., Maynard F., Secretin M.-C. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 1999 (October-December), 34 (5-6), 533-542 (21 ref.) En:en (saan: 511259)