Contemporary issues in milk fat technology

Definitions of the terms ‘milk-fat fractions’, ‘speciality butters’ and ‘cold spreadable butter’ are given. The development of milk-fat fractionation and texturization programmes and US markets for milk-fat fractions and speciality butters are outlined. Chemical, physical and nutritional properties and labelling requirements are discussed. Examples are given of milk-fat fractions that can be produced with particular properties, such as solid-fat content and fatty acid composition, for application in a range of foods, such as fat spreads, chocolate, bakery products and dairy products. Current research topics, such as manipulation of composition and physical properties, are mentioned.
Kaylegian K.E. Lipid Technology  1999 (November), 11 (6), 132-136 (4 ref.)  En:en (saan: 510614)

Farmhouse cheese – consumers’ views

The National Food Centre and University College Cork recently carried out a survey of consumers of Irish farmhouse cheese. Consumers (aged 16 to 55 years) were asked about their motivation for buying the cheese, the amount purchased, how often the cheese was purchased, where it was bought, the type of cheese purchased, patterns of cheese consumption and the last purchase. The survey showed that most consumers bought farmhouse cheese for its taste and flavour and did not regard price as important. Farmhouse cheese was bought regularly but the amount bought on each occasion was low. Many consumers ate farmhouse cheese for lunch or as a snack. Popular cheeses for consumption included Gubbeen, Cashel Blue, Carrigbyrne, Durrus and Milleens.
Murphy M., Cowan C., O’Reilly S. Farm and Food  1999 (Summer-Autumn), 9 (1), 10-11 (0 ref.) En:en (saan: 509229)

Lactobacillus promotes GI tract health

Lactobacillus reuteri, which occurs in human milk, has been used as an ingredient in the production of yoghurt. L. reuteri is a probiotic that colonizes the human gut, and enhances health and well-being. The bacteria may provide broad-spectrum protection against many diseases, particularly under anaerobic conditions in the presence of glycerol. Under these conditions, the active metabolite reuterin, which may have potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, is produced. L. reuteri is used in Stonyfield Farm yoghurts, which also contain L. casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus and bifidus cultures.
LaBell F.   Prepared Foods  1999 (August), 168 (8), 71 (0 ref.)  En (saan: 510181)
Functional foods

The association between diet and some human diseases is well established. New foods have been developed that are claimed to protect against diseases and promote health. These functional foods contain beneficial components (e.g. fibre and plant sterol) and added ingredients (e.g. vitamins and probiotic cultures). Examples of functional foods include live bio-yoghurts, which contain Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria. These bacteria are claimed to protect against carcinogens and pathogens and may reduce cholesterol. Lactose-intolerant people are also able to consume these fermented milk products without discomfort. Components of cows’ milk (e.g. conjugated linoleic acid) are reported to benefit the immune system, and these are being studied.
Schenker S. Milk Industry International  1999 (September), 101 (9), supplement, 2-3 (0 ref.) En (saan: 509764)
Some milk based ingredients for ice cream including a discussion of some recently introduced ones

Recent changes in legislation requiring the use of a minimal amount of milk proteins (2.5%) in place of milk solids not fat of 7.5% have allowed the use of such formulations for ice cream. In addition to butter and cream, the other possible dairy-derived ingredients for ice cream are described. Variation in composition of these ingredients can affect the processing, texture and taste of the ice cream. Compositional information on various milk-based ingredients, especially those that supply part of the milk solids not fat, and of the milk proteins used for ice cream is presented. Some of their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. The ingredients covered are: liquid full-cream milk, liquid skimmed milk, skimmed milk powder, full-cream milk powder, buttermilk powder, whey powder and whey derivatives.
Rothwell J. Ice Cream  1999 (September), 50 (10), 381-383 (0 ref.) En:en (saan: 509301)
Advantages of incorporation of inulin and oligofructose into ice cream

Raftiline, which is a white powder containing inulin extracted from chicory roots, and Raftilose, which is oligofructose obtained by enzymic partial hydrolysis of inulin, were incorporated into compositions for ice-cream production. These compounds may be used to replace fats and saccharose, and thus are suitable for the manufacture of ‘slimming’ and weight watchers’ ice-creams. The proposed formulations are suitable for diabetics, and have high nutritional value, excellent taste and low calorie value.
Wouters R.   Industrie Alimentari  1999 (September), 38 (384), 953-956 (0 ref.)  It   (saan: 509041)

Milk proteins and nutrition

The role of milk proteins in nutrition is discussed in this article. Bio-active peptides have been isolated from milk using filtration technology. These peptides show physiological activity, and may find use in health foods. The article applies current knowledge about the glucides to other molecules. The glucides, derived from glucose, may be absorbed slowly or rapidly into the intestine. Proteins and amino acids may also be divided by the rate at which each is absorbed. This may be independent of composition and of the quantity consumed. One study showed that intestinal absorption is slower for casein than for beta-globulin. Leucine labelled with carbon-13 has been used to trace the passage of amino acids from the intestine into the blood. Lactoserum proteins enter into circulation quickly, whereas casein amino acids appear rather more slowly, but release is sustained. Lactoserum proteins may be used to hasten the recuperation of athletes after exertion.
Langley-Danysz P. RIA 1999 (September), (594), 45-46 (0 ref.) Fr (saan: 509653)

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