Structure of butter III. Effect of
modification of cream ripening and fatty acid composition on the melting properties of
butter fat

Research is being conducted to improve the
spreadability of butter. The melting and crystallization properties of butter made with
different types of cream were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The cream
was either ripened traditionally (summer-type) or ripened using the heat-step method
(winter-type). The cream was either unenriched or enriched with a milk-fat fraction with a
low melting point (LMP). The heat-step ripening led to a break-down of the single melting
peak registered at 0-20 C in traditionally ripened cream into two peaks, but the
temperature values of the double peak were unchanged. The addition of a LMP milk-fat
fraction decreased the temperature of the melting peak of butter made of traditionally
ripened cream.
Schaffer B., Szakaly S., Lorinczy D., Belagy J.   Milchwissenschaft 1999 54 (2),
82-85 (11 ref.)  En:en:de   (saan: 493776)

Reduction in cholesterol and
fractionation of butter oil using supercritical carbon dioxide with absorption on alumina

A method using a combination of
supercritical carbon dioxide and alumina to reduce cholesterol at a controlled temperature
and high pressure has been studied. This method was also found to fraction the
triglycerides present into low, medium, and high molecular weights. This research
identified that triglycerides increased the co-solubility of cholesterol in supercritical
carbon dioxide. This has led to an indication of the potential ease of blending milk
products to a specific fat content and in the production of speciality food ingredients.
Mohamed R.S., Neves G.B.M., Kieckbusch T.G.   International Journal of Food
Science and Technology  1998 (October), 33 (5), 445-454 (30 ref.)  En (saan:

Spreads enriched with three
different levels of vegetable oil sterols and the degree of cholesterol lowering in
normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects

A reduction in plasma cholesterol reduces
the risk of coronary heart disease. Plant sterols reduce cholesterol levels. The
dose-dependency of cholesterol-reducing effects of plant sterols in commonly used spreads
was investigated. Butter, a commercially available spread and three experimental spreads
fortified with three different concentrations of plant sterols were used. The three doses
of plant sterols reduced levels of total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the
low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Plasma vitamin K1,
24-hydroxyvitamin D, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol were not affected by sterol intake.
Plasma concentrations of alpha- plus beta-carotene were decreased by consumption of
Hendriks H.F.J., Westrate J.A., van Vliet T., Meijer G.W.   European Journal of
Clinical Nutrition  1999 (April), 53 (4), 319-327 (27 ref.) En:en   (saan:

Processed cheese analogues
incorporating fat-substitutes. 2. Rheology, sensory perception of texture and

There is much interest in developing
low-fat foods to satisfy consumers’ demands for healthy foods. This study
investigated the rheological properties (e.g. firmness, cohesiveness, spreadability and
stickiness), sensory perception of texture (e.g. grainy, sticky and mouth-coating) and
microstructure of processed cheese analogues. The cheese analogues were made from
different milk protein bases and lipid/fat substitutes (e.g. anhydrous milk fat, starch
and microparticulate whey protein). It was found that the rheological properties of the
cheeses were influenced by storage time. Scanning electron microscopy showed differences
in the microstructure of the cheeses. Textural attributes were affected by milk protein
base and lipid/fat substitute.
Tamime A.Y., Muir D.D., Shenana M.E., Kalab M., Dawood A.H. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und
-Technologie  1999 32 (1), 50-59 (26 ref.) En:en   (saan: 492503)

The lowdown on low-salt cheese

Low-salt cheeses may taste bitter, owing to
the high levels of lactococci and lactobacilli that may be present.  Furthermore,
rancid and soapy off-flavours may occur, owing to the high levels of psychrotrophs.
Low-salt cheese is often frozen.  Thawing the cheese at high temperatures results in
high levels of lactobacilli, lactococci and psychrotrophic microorganisms.  Thawing
at refrigeration temperatures results in a cheese with a flavour profile similar to that
of full-salt cheese.
Anon.   Australian Dairy Foods  1999 (February), 20 (4), 52 (0 ref.)
 En (saan: 493754)

The health effects of cultured milk
products with viable and non-viable bacteria

Health benefits have been attributed to
fermented dairy products and probiotic microorganisms. Whether viable microorganisms are
required for health benefits is not clear. The use of non-viable microorganisms instead of
viable microorganisms would have economic advantages with respect to shelf-life and
storage. Published studies that have compared the properties of viable and non-viable
fermented milks and probiotic bacteria are reviewed. The health benefits discussed are
lactose intolerance, acute gastroenteritis, immune stimulation, anti-tumour activity,
anti-mutagenic activity, reduction of serum cholesterol, and positive effects on
candidiasis. Both viable and non-viable bacteria were effective in lactose maldigesters
and in the treatment of diarrhoea and candidiasis. Stimulation of the human immune system
was achieved only with viable bacteria. Reduction of faecal enzyme activity was only
obtained after consumption of viable probiotic bacteria. Data on non-viable preparations
were often limited.
Ouwehand A.C., Salminen S.J.   International Dairy Journal  1998 8 (9),
749-758 (76 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 493780)

Inulin and oligofructose for
calorie reduced ice cream

Inulin, prepared from chicory root, can be
used to replace all the fat in ice cream and gives a creamy texture, like fat.  It
also inhibits the growth of coarse ice crystals during temperature fluctuations in
storage. Ice cream made with the proprietary product Raftiline has a similar meltdown to
the standard product.  Raftilose is an oligofructose containing some fructans, which
can be used as a sugar replacer in ice cream, provided that sweetness is enhanced by
artificial sweeteners.  The products are not broken down by the digestive enzymes.
 They are metabolized by bacterial enzymes in the large intestine, with a yield of 1
to 1.5 kcal/g – significantly less than sugar or fat.
Wouters R   Zeitschrift fur die Lebensmittelwirtschaft  1999 50 (3), 10-12
(0 ref.)  De:de   (saan: 494302)

Whipping cream

The author reviews a number of aspects of
compound cream. The components of compound cream are listed (including fats, oils and
emulsifiers). The advantages, primarily ease of handling, of compound cream over natural
dairy cream are considered. The balance between stability (for the purposes of storage and
transport) and whipping properties (which require destabilization) are discussed in terms
of ingredient composition. The importance of set production conditions to produce a cream
of consistent quality is considered. A comparison of the role of casein in compound cream
and natural dairy cream is given, and emulsification of casein by milk-fat globule
membranes (MFGMs) in dairy cream is mentioned. The potential of using MFGMs in compound
cream, in order to improve its sensory properties, is considered.
Shimada T.   Foods and Food Ingredients Journal of Japan  1999 (April),
(180), 55-63 (27 ref.)  Ja:en   (saan: 493717)

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