Consumer acceptance, consumption
and sensory attributes of spreads made from designer fats

Cholesterol-reduced table spreads made with
animal-based designer fats might offer an acceptable alternative to butter and spreads
made from hydrogenated vegetable oils. In this study, liking and consumption measurements
of the acceptability of butter, margarine, and two spreads made using designer fats were
evaluated, and the sensory attributes of the products were determined. Products tested
were butter and margarines, a dairy spread made with cholesterol-reduced milk fat, and a
spread made with cholesterol-reduced lard mixed with vegetable oils. Liking and
consumption were measured at normal mealtimes in the natural eating environment of the
subjects. Butter was found to be the most liked and margarine the least liked spread.
Butter eaters accounted for the liking differences among samples and ate more spreads,
while margarine eaters liked all products equally. Liking ratings were seen to be
generally unrelated to intake for all subjects. Descriptive analysis showed the flavour of
the two spreads made from designer fats to be more similar to margarine than to butter.
The two designer fat spreads were as well accepted by subjects as their regularly used
Michicich M., Vickers Z., Martini M.C., Labat J.B.   Food Quality and Preference
 1999 (March), 10 (2), 147-154 (19 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 490639)

Butter – butter fat: more than only
a raw material

This article describes butter and
butterfat. Butter should contain at least 82% fat, no more than 16% water, and up to 2%
fat-free dry mass. Pure butterfat contains 99.8% fat, and fractioned butterfat has the
same fat content as pure butterfat. Butterfat with 96% fat is also available. Butter is
used largely for its flavour. However, the quality of butter is variable in terms of
consistency and content. The baking industry often prefers margarine owing to its
processing properties, and the inconsistency of butter. Butter producers offer a range of
products, aimed at different baking applications, from different types of butterfat, pure
butterfat to fractioned butterfat.
Schroder K.   Getreide Mehl und Brot  1999 (January-February), 53 (1),
48-50 (3 ref.)  De   (saan: 490576))

Volatile reduced sulphur compounds
in butter by solid phase microextraction

Volatile sulfur compounds influence the
flavour of a range of foods and beverages; however, there is little information about the
occurrence and chemistry of volatile sulfur compounds in butter. Volatile reduced-sulfur
compounds in the headspace of butter were analysed by polyacrylate-fibre, solid-phase
microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS. The use of these SPME fibres minimizes the possible
modification of any reduced sulfur compounds present. The concentrations of methanethiol
and dimethyldisulfide were determined and their seasonal variations were evaluated. Grass
type and condition seemed to influence the concentrations of these compounds in the
butter, with the highest concentrations being found in spring. The concentrations also
decreased during storage of the butter at 4 C for 5 weeks.
Shooter D., Jayatissa N., Renner N.   Journal of Dairy Research  1999
(February), 66 (1), 115-123 (24 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 491903))

Manufacture and composition of low
fat Cheddar cheese from milk enriched with different protein concentrate powders

Demand for reduced-fat Cheddar cheese is
increasing. Reduced-fat cheese is prepared by altering the casein to fat ratio in the raw
milk. The ratio is adjusted by skimming milk or by adding protein concentrates. Effects of
addition of diafiltered microfiltered protein concentrates (DMF powders), calcium
caseinate (CaCN powders) or ultrafiltered protein concentrates (UF powders) to milk on the
manufacturing, composition and yield of low-fat Cheddar cheese were studied. To obtain the
same casein levels, compared with DMF powder, more UF powder and less CaCN powder was
required. DMF powder increased production time slightly. Yields of low fat cheese were
highest when DMF powder was used. Further study is required to determine how the powders
affect cheese-ripening processes.
St-Gelais D., Roy D., Audet P.   Food Research International  1998 31 (2),
137-145 (30 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 492179))

Lactic acid bacteria and Japanese
health foods

Fermented milk products are widely consumed
in Japan as health foods.  Some yoghurts and fermented milks are labelled as
‘foods for specified human health’, and are believed to help regulate digestion
and prevent mutagenesis, and to treat GI disorders such as diarrhoea in breast-fed babies.
 The discussion includes the lactic acid bacteria used in different fermentation
processes, and the different products obtained (from seven companies).  For example,
Bifidobacterium BB 536 may be used in the production of powdered products, tablets and
pastilles, granules, chocolates (sweets and blocks) and biscuits.
Langley-Danysz P.   RIA  1999 (January), (587), 30-33 (0 ref.)  Fr
(saan: 490001)

Effect of gelatine on the texture
of yoghurt and of acid-heat-induced milk gels

Yoghurt-like products have become popular
in the western world.  Use of gelatin to produce yoghurt with different textures,
ranging from a creamy to a firm, mouldable gel, was examined.  Gelatin was added, at
a range of concentrations, to traditionally produced yoghurt, with and without added
skimmed milk powder, and to acid-heat-induced milk gels.  Gelatin helped prevent
syneresis in yoghurts and gels, and reinforced mechanical resistance of the gels, enabling
production of gels with different textures.
Fiszman S.M., Salvador A.   Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung
und-Forschung A  1999 (February), 208 (2), 100-105 (28 ref.)  En:en (saan:

Effects and results of ice-cream
structuring. Part I: structure

The structure of ice cream determines
sensory quality and storage stability. The important quality parameters are the size of
the ice crystals and the spread of the air bubbles (gas phase). A fine spread of air
ensures creamy mouthfeel. The structure is built up during freezing and hardening. The
microstructure of ice cream consists of one continuous and several disperse phases. The
continuous phase contains the soluble ingredients (sugar, salt, whey protein), and
dispersed ice crystals, air bubbles, and fat cones. This article describes the structure
of the gas phase and ice phase of ice cream.
Rohenkohl H., Kohlus R.   Zucker- und Susswaren Wirtschaft  1999
(February), 52 (1-2), 35-38 (5 ref.)  De:en:de   (saan: 491784))

Bioactive proteins and peptides for
functional foods

This article on bioactive peptides and
proteins tabulates these peptides and proteins, together with their effects. Their
applications in food products are also described. Bioactive proteins include
immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme. Bioactive peptides include
casein phosphopeptides, glycomacropeptides, and ACE inhibitors. A large number of these
are commercially available and could be used in the development of functional foods. Milk
is an important source of bioactive proteins and peptides.
Buikstra F.P.M.   Voedingsmiddelentechnologie  1999 (February 25), 32 (5),
32-36 (17 ref.)  Nl   (saan: 491775))

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