An atypical ingredient: butter in
all its forms

This article describes the traditional
production process of butter, the concentration method, and the fractionation method. The
properties of butter are varied, and include nutritional properties (natural, digestible,
fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamins), processing properties (aeration, viscosity,
crystallization, heat stability), preservative properties (migration, emulsion, moisture
barrier, water retention, oxidation), and sensory properties (emulsion, elasticity,
texture, colour, flavour, odour, spreadability). Different types of butter have been
developed, with specific properties for certain applications. Butter can be split into
winter and summer butter, whilst technically modified butter and special margarines have
been developed for specific applications. The role of butter in butter cream, brioche,
puff pastry, croissant, short-crust pastry, and cake is tabulated.
Anon.   Filiere Gourmande  1999 (May), (61), I-VIII (0 ref.)  Fr
(saan: 499258)

Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes
in processed cheese, cooked ham and hamburgers: effect of different types of packaging

The effects of packaging material on counts
of Listeria monocytogenes in melted cheese, cooked ham and hamburgers were investigated
during storage. The packaging materials studied were self-wrapping plastic film, wax paper
and silver foil. Counts decreased in all samples during the first 24 hours. After this
time, L. monocytogenes counts were maintained or even increased in foods wrapped in
self-wrapping plastic film and wax paper, but counts gradually decreased in samples
wrapped in silver foil.
Menendez S., Centeno J.A., Hermida M., Godinez R.   Alimentaria  1999
(June), (303), 113-116 (26 ref.)  Es:en:es   (saan: 499273)

Listeria crisis grips French cheese

Over the past few months, there have been
several cases of Listeria contamination of French non-pasteurized cheeses. The cheeses
affected include Mont d’Or, Saint-Felicien and French Camembert cheeses. Salmonella
has also been detected in French Camembert cheeses. A recent outbreak of listeriosis was
also linked to non-pasteurized Epoisses cheese. The French Government is to open a public
information service to reassure consumers about the safety of non-pasteurized cheeses. Raw
milk cheese production represents about 20% of French cheese production.
Anon.   World Food Regulation Review  1999 (May), 8 (12), 7-8 (0 ref.)
En   (saan: 499449)

The potential for beneficial
manipulation of the gut microflora by dietary means

The longevity of people in eastern
Mediterranean countries has been attributed to their regular consumption of fermented
dairy products such as yoghurt, which suppresses the activity of the gut microflora. The
three approaches to changing the gut microflora are outlined: probiotics, prebiotics and
antibiotics/antibacterial agents. The selection of probiotic bacteria for commercial use
is discussed. The prebiotic potential of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) is
considered and the four main types of NDO are described: galacto-oligosaccharides,
fructo-oligosaccharides, lactulose and lactitol, and the raffinose series.  The
antimicrobial activity of garlic, tannins, isothiocyanates, and essential oils is
Ratcliffe B., McMillan J.   BNF Nutrition Bulletin  1999 (Summer), 24
(87), 82-90 (35 ref.)  En   (saan: 501566)

Ice cream – part one

This article reviews literature on the
ice-cream industry, covering topics such as calcium fortification; botanical flavours;
flavourings for low-fat or fat-free ice cream; the composition of ice cream and frozen
yoghurt; nutritional value and labelling; the role of fat in ice cream; the effect of milk
fractions on the sensory properties of frozen desserts; the effect of milk-fat
concentration on the flavour perception of vanilla ice cream; new vegetable fat products
from Aarhus Olie; plant oils in ice-cream production; the use of Raftiline and Raftilose
in ice cream; the use of fat substitutes in ice cream; the link between the stability of
aerated milk protein emulsions and the microstructure and physical properties of ice
cream; the use of cottage cheese whey concentrate as a substitute for dried skim milk;
cyclamate and saccharin as substitutes for sugar in ice cream; the use of starch-based
sweeteners; gelatin in ice-cream production; stabilizers used in ice-cream production; and
microbiological aspects of frozen yoghurts.
Mann E.   Dairy Industries International  1999 (June), 64 (6), 13-14
(64 ref.)  En   (saan: 499240)

Antihypertensive peptides derived
from milk proteins

Enzymic hydrolysis of milk proteins
produces physiologically functional peptides, such as inhibitors of the
angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, which plays a role in blood pressure regulation. This
paper reviews studies on the properties of such inhibitory peptides obtained from milk
proteins, particularly casein, and from fermented milk products. Some of these peptides
showed significant anti-hypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and
factors contributing to these effects are considered. Studies in humans are reported,
although as yet there have been few in which anti-hypertensive effects have been
confirmed. The possibility of using these peptides in functional foods is mentioned.
Yamamoto N., Takano T.   Nahrung  1999 (June), 43 (3), 159-164 (58
ref.) En:en   (saan: 499631)

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