Dairy ingredients enhance
flavour in low-fat products.
Butter Buds Food
Ingredients has produced a butterfat concentrate that is claimed to improve
the flavour and mouthfeel of meat products without introducing large amounts
of fat. Butter Buds is prepared from enzyme-processed butterfat and is used
at levels of 0.25 to 0.5%. Applications include low-fat meat products (e.g.
ground beef patties).
Ceithaml L. Meat Marketing and Technology 2000 (March), 8 (3), 48-49 (0 ref.)
En (saan: 521550)

Composition and sensory
attributes of retail Cheddar cheese with different fat contents.
The expansion
of the low-/reduced-fat cheese market is hampered by a poor public perception
of the product quality. In this study, the effect of fat content on the composition
and sensory properties of a selection of retail Cheddar cheeses was investigated.
A total of 30 Cheddar-type cheeses purchased in the UK and Ireland was placed
in three groups depending on fat content: (i) full-fat (30-36% w/w); (ii) reduced-fat
(19.5-24% w/w); and (iii) half-fat (13- 18% w/w). Cheeses were analysed for
protein, fat, salt, moisture, proteolysis, and sensory characteristics (by trained
panellists). The level of fat was shown to affect the composition, but did not
appear to influence the level of proteolysis significantly. Full-fat cheeses
were distinguished from the other cheeses by sensory analysis by the descriptive
attributes of ‘creamy’ and ‘buttery’.
Fenelon M.A., Guinee T.P., Delahunty C., Murray J., Crowe F. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis 2000 (February), 13 (1), 13-26 (many ref.) En:en (saan:
521983)

Understanding process
cheeses.
Processing and
formulation requirements of processed cheese are examined. Standard ingredients
and processing conditions are required for each category of processed cheese.
Pasteurized processed cheese is made by pasteurizing, emulsifying and blending
natural cheese. Specific moisture and fat contents and added ingredients are
allowed. Pasteurized processed cheese food might contain other dairy ingredients.
Pasteurized processed cheese spread must contain at least 51% cheese ingredients.
Cheese products consist of an oil phase and a water phase, cheese proteins collecting
at the interface between the two and creating an emulsion. Modifying the emulsion
helps to achieve the desired textural attributes in processed cheese. Casein
from the base cheese is the primary emulsifier in a processed cheese product.
Emulsifying salts provide an effective way to control cheese properties. The
pH value can alter protein solubility and configuration, as well as the ability
of emulsifying salts to bind calcium. The ability to modify cheese texture is
determined by the protein:fat ratio. Processed cheese foods and spreads often
require additional ingredients to bind extra water. EMCs are primary ingredients
for the creation of processed cheese with a characteristic cheese flavour.
Burrington K.J. Food Product Design 2000 (February), 9 (11), 57-69 (7pp)
(0 ref.) En (saan: 521942)

Keeping cheese out of
the pink.
Research has been
undertaken to eliminate the aesthetically undesirable trait of pinkness from
coloured cheeses such as Cheddar and Colby. Pinkness can occur in natural cheeses
that use a water-based annatto colorant. Around 2-5% of Cheddar and Colby cheese
displayed in supermarkets has been found to show evidence of pinkness and potential
oxidized flavour. Consumer rejection of discoloured cheese is seen to result
in lost sales. Major factors that appear to cause discoloration, including high-intensity
fluorescent lighting in display cases, pH levels in cheese of 5.4 or more, and
the presence of oxygen in cheese packaging, have been identified. Temperature
abuse due to bright lights might further degrade cheese quality. Results have
suggested that processors should produce Cheddar and Colby cheese within a pH
range of 4.8-5.1 and use packaging materials such as foil-laminate film to protect
the cheese by blocking light and oxygen. Heat from display bulbs needs to be
reduced to prevent cheese degradation.
Anon. Food Product Design 2000 (February), 9 (11), 23 (0 ref.) En (saan:
521938)

Effect of process parameters
on the structure of ice-cream.
The structure
of ice cream consists of air bubbles, fat globules and ice crystals dispersed
throughout a serum phase. Ice-crystal and fat-globule size has a significant
effect on the sensory properties and meltdown characteristics of the ice cream.
This study investigated the effects of freezer parameters on the size of ice
crystals and meltdown behaviour of the ice cream. The freezer parameters included
outlet temperature, dasher speed and ice mix volume flow/residence time in the
freezer. The results showed that ice crystal size was affected by freezer outlet
temperature and ice mix volume flow. Meltdown behaviour was affected by all
the freezer parameters. Recommendations were made for an optimum ice-cream structure.
Koxholt M., Eisenmann B., Hinrichs J. European Dairy Magazine 2000 (February),
11 (1), 27-28+30 (7 ref.) En (saan: 521400)

Organic dairy products.
Recently, sales
of organic dairy products have increased rapidly in Europe, particularly in
Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Organic dairy products cost about 25 to
30% more than conventional dairy products. Over 23% of milk sold in Denmark
is organic. This is partly because the production of organic milk is subsidized
by the Danish Government. In Austria and France, organic milk production represents
about 10% of the total milk production. Organic milk production in the UK is
low. Sales of organic dairy products (e.g. cheese, butter and yoghurt) have
dramatically increased in Denmark. This article reviews recent papers on organic
dairy farming and the market for organic dairy products in Europe.
Mann E. Dairy Industries International 2000 (March), 65 (3), 15-16 (20 ref.)
En (saan: 521578)