The European Food Safety Authority has named food dyes used illegally in spice-producing countries, following evidence that they are toxic, and maybe genotoxic and/or carcinogenic.

They are Acid Red 73; Sudan Red 7B; Metanil Yellow; Auramine; Congo Red; Butter Yellow; Solvent Red I; Naphthol Yellow; Malachite Green; Leucomalachite Green; Ponceau 3R; Ponceau MX; and Oil Orange SS.

EFSA added that although there was insufficient data on dyes currently tightly controlled in the EU – Sudans I-IV, Para Red, Rhodamine B, and Orange II – there is experimental evidence Sudan I is genotoxic and carcinogenic and Rhodamine B potentially genotoxic and carcinogenic.